Fallback

Concepts

A fallback policy is applied when a service request is abnormal.

There are three key concepts in fallback: isolation, circuit breaking, and fault tolerance:

  • Isolation is an exception detection mechanism. There are two common "exception"s: timeout and overload, which can be controlled by timeout duration and max concurrent requests.
  • Circuit breaking is an exception response mechanism which depends on isolation. Circuit breaking is triggered by the error rate, like the number of bad requests, or the rate of invalid calls.
  • Fault tolerance is an exception handling mechanism that depends on circuit breaking. Fault tolerance is called after a circuit breaking is triggered. Users can set the number of fault tolerance calls in the configuration.

Let's combine the 3 concepts: the isolation mechanism detects there are M(the threshold) errors in N requests, the circuit breaking is triggered and make sure there are no more requests sent, and then fault tolerance method is called. Technically the concept definition is the same with Netflix Hystrix, making it easy to understand the config items(Reference: Hystrix Configuration)). ServiceComb provides 2 fault tolerance methods: returning null values and throwing exceptions.

Scenario

Users configure a fallback policy to handle microservices' exceptions.

Configuration

Configuration items can be set to be applied to all APIs or a particular method of a microservice.

Configuration Scope

  • Configuration by type: items can be applied to Providers and Consumers
  • Configuration by scope: items can be applied to a specific microservice, or [x-schema-id+operationId]

All the items in this chapter can be configured in the following format:

servicecomb.[namespace].[type].[MicroServiceName].[interface name].[property name]

The type can be Consumer or Provider. Specify the [MicroServiceName] to apply configuration to specific microservice. To make the configuration applied to API, we have to specify the API name in the format x-[schema-id+operationId]

The possible Isolation config items are as follows:

servicecomb.isolation.Consumer.timeout.enabled
servicecomb.isolation.Consumer.DemoService.timeout.enabled
servicecomb.isolation.Consumer.DemoService.hello.sayHello.timeout.enabled
servicecomb.isolation.Provider.timeout.enabled
servicecomb.isolation.Provider.DemoService.timeout.enabled
servicecomb.isolation.Provider.DemoService.hello.sayHello.timeout.enabled

Configuration Items

Tips: the items' type' field is omitted in the following table, while items can be applied to both Provider and Consumer.

For Providers, the configuration item should be: servicecomb.isolation.Consumer.timeout.enabled

For Consumers, the conriguration item should be servicecomb.isolation.Provider.timeout.enabled

Table 1-1 The fallback policy config items

Configuration Item Default value Value Range Required Description Tips
servicecomb.isolation.timeout.enabled FALSE - No Enable timeout detection or not.
servicecomb.isolation.timeoutInMilliseconds 30000 - No The timeout duration threshold.
servicecomb.isolation.maxConcurrentRequests 10 - No The maximum number of concurrent requests.
servicecomb.circuitBreaker.enabled TRUE - No Enable circuit breaking or not.
servicecomb.circuitBreaker.forceOpen FALSE - No Force circuit breaker to be enabled regardless of the number of errors.
servicecomb.circuitBreaker.forceClosed FALSE - No Force circuit breaker to be disabled. When forceOpen and forceClose are set at the same time, forceOpen will take effect.
servicecomb.circuitBreaker.sleepWindowInMilliseconds 15000 - No How long to recover from a circuit breaking. After the recovery, the number of failures will be reset. Note: If the call fails immediately after a recover, the circuit breaker is triggered immediately again.
servicecomb.circuitBreaker.requestVolumeThreshold 20 - No The threshold of failed requests within 10 seconds. If the threshold is reached, circuit breaker is triggered. The 10 seconds duration is splitted evenly into 10 segments for error calculation. The calculation will start after 1 second. So circuit breakers are triggered after at least 1 second.
servicecomb.circuitBreaker.errorThresholdPercentage 50 - No The threshold of error rate. If the threshold is reached, circuit breaker is triggered.
servicecomb.fallback.enabled TRUE - No Enable fallback handling or not
servicecomb.fallback.maxConcurrentRequests 10 - No The max number of concurrent fallback(specified by servicecomb.fallbackpolicy.policy) calls. When the threshold is reached, the fallback method is not called by return exception directly.
servicecomb.fallbackpolicy.policy throwexception returnnulll \ throwexception No The fallback policy when errors occurred.

Caution: Be cautious to set servicecomb.isolation.timeout.enabled to true. All handlers in the handler chain are asynchronously executed, the intermediate handlers' return will make the follow-up handlers processing abandoned. Therefore, we recommend to set servicecomb.isolation.timeout.enabled to be false(by default) and set the network timeout duration servicecomb.request.timeout to 30000.

Sample Code

servicecomb:
  handler:
    chain:
      Consumer:
        default: bizkeeper-consumer
  isolation:
    Consumer:
      timeout:
        enabled: true
      timeoutInMilliseconds: 30000
  circuitBreaker:
    Consumer:
      sleepWindowInMilliseconds: 15000
      requestVolumeThreshold: 20
  fallback:
    Consumer:
      enabled: true
  fallbackpolicy:
    Consumer:
      policy: throwexception

NOTE:

You need to enable service governance for fallback. The corresponding provider handler bizkeeper-provider, and the consumer handler is bizkeeper-consumer.

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